Your cursor is that blinking vertical line in the window you are typing in. It is where the next thing you type will appear. It is different from the pointer that you move around with your mouse.
Windows is called Windows because it is built around the concept of having multiple views of multiple things. Like looking out of different windows in your home. If the content of a window does not fit in the viewable space provided it, it will show scroll bars along the right and/or bottom margin that you can use to scroll to the other parts that you can not yet see.
The letters and numbers you see on your screen or on a document are in a typeface like Times New Roman or Arial. There are many others. They look different. Each typeface can be displayed in different fonts (different sizes, bold italics).
A browser is the application program you use to view web pages. Most likely you are using Microsoft’s Internet Explorer, but there are others such as Firefox, Chrome, Opera, or Safari